- Sepus M Fatem, San A Awang, Satyawan Pudyatmoko, Muhammad AK Sahide, Andita A Pratama, Ahmad Maryudi. 2018. Camouflaging economic development agendas with forest conservation narratives: A strategy of lower governments for gaining authority in the re-centralising Indonesia. Land use policy 78: 699-710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.07.018 .
The government of Indonesia has recently recentralised the authority over forest resources. This paper analyses the bureaucratic politics and power struggles between central and local governments concerning the re-centralisation policy. This paper analyses the local initiative by Tambrauw District of West Papua in integrating management of conservation areas into district governance through so-called “conservation district” policy. We asked what are the specific real interests of the local government in implementing the environmentally-minded policy? How does the accumulation of power by the local government help it pursue its interests? We found that by using the environmentally-minded policy narrative, the district masks its true interests of economic gains from the forests. We further identified the power sources and strategies employed by the district government of Tambrauw in achieving its interests. The district successfully used the issue of local wisdom, customary rights and communities. Nuancing the narrative importance of specific socio-cultural realities, customary rights, and tenurial systems of indigenous people has paid off; the district successfully built coalitions with an array of actors, i.e. NGOs, higher bureaucracies, and indigenous groups. The coalitions provide opportunities for actors to realise their goals.
- Ahmad Maryudi, Dodik R Nurrochmat, Lukas Giessen. 2018. Research trend: Forest policy and governance-Future analyses in multiple social science discipline. Forest Policy and Economics 91: 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2018.02.007 .
Around the globe, forests are utilized, managed and conserved in multiple ways. Decisions about forest policies and management are determined by individual and societal groups’ interests and values, and have economic, social, and political dimensions. Over the past few decades, a fast growing and diversifying research programme on forest governance, harnessing a number of social science disciplines, has endeavoured to understand these dimensions. In this light, the International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO) Division 9 Unit 09.05 (Forest Policy and Governance) organised an international scientific conference on “Forest-related policy and governance: Analyses in the environmental social sciences” in late 2016. This conference aimed to be the global scientific hub for forest-related social sciences research, including studies on forest-related empirical fields, both rural and urban. It took stock of the latest scientific advancements in the fields of forest-related policy analyses, as well as wider forest governance studies from various social scientific disciplines. Based on this stock-taking exercise across a number of forest-focused social science disciplines, this paper reviews selected contributions to this conference, which were compiled into this special issue, and identifies research trends and potential fields for future research in the forest-related social sciences.
- Muhammad Alif K Sahide, Micah R Fisher, Ahmad Maryudi, Ahmad Dhiaulhaq, Christine Wulandari, Yeon-Su Kim, Lukas Giessen. 2018. Deadlock opportunism in contesting conservation areas in Indonesia. Land use policy 77: 412-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.05.020 .
Conservation areas are designated to protect biodiversity and resources by limiting anthropogenic stressors. In Indonesia, conservation areas account for almost 23 percent of the state forest with extremely limited allowable uses. Previous policy interventions to support community and traditional uses have never been very successful due to the deep roots of bureaucratic politics originally defined to safeguard biodiversity. This deadlock created by the two major laws governing forestry and conservation areas has been broken with recent permits for geothermal projects in conservation areas. The rationale is to provide an environmental service (renewable energy) and to address global concerns for climate mitigation. This paper examines how the deadlock is broken at least temporarily for geothermal development and maintained for social forestry. Arguments and findings presented in this paper are drawn from content analysis, interviews, and long-term engagement among the authors observing operationalization of conservation policies in Indonesia, both in Java and outer islands. We propose the operational framework of deadlock opportunism as a way to highlight the processes of breaking a deadlock by legitimizing particular interests (geothermal development) through green and populist narratives, while hollowing out claims of other interests (social forestry). Although anticipation of breaking the deadlock through geothermal development has encouraged numerous policies and programs developed for social forestry, we argue these developments actually camouflage the underlying legitimacy of communities and keep them from accessing lands within conservation areas. We believe the concept of deadlock opportunism and the operational framework can provide new insights for understanding progress (or lack thereof) of certain policies in their lifecycles in other parts of the world.
- Ahmad Maryudi, Rodd Myers. 2018. Renting legality: How FLEGT is reinforcing power relations in Indonesia furniture production networks. Geoforum 97: 46-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2018.10.008 .
Over the past few decades, transnational and supranational market-based forest governance systems have been developed to address the complex problems associated with deforestation, by improving the legality and sustainability of timber traded in global markets. This is catalysed by the increasing global production and consumption of timber products and increasing sensitivity of interest groups to how timber products are produced. A broad range of actors is involved in global production networks. This paper discusses how hierarchies and networks of power across the timber production network are encountered and negotiated. More specifically, it investigates the power constellations of wood furniture actors in Indonesia, nested within global production networks: who holds the power, how power is gained and maintained, and who wins and loses over time. Using the case of the timber legality assurance system in the context of the European Union Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT) initiative, we demonstrate that legality verification in Indonesia is both entrenching pre-existing inequitable power relations while producing new modes of elite capture. Legality verification requires new knowledge and additional costs that are sometimes beyond the capacity of certain (particularly smaller) furniture manufacturers operators. This has driven a new practice of renting out FLEGT licenses by larger producers/manufacturers to smaller ones in the country. Although the practice implies potential risks (e.g. fines), large companies in Indonesia manage risk by drawing from pre-existing patronage relations. They also appear to find the risk worthwhile, as it produces financial gain but moreover, a new form of control over the market. Meanwhile, small operators and artisanal producers that still aspire to global markets face disproportionate challenges to engage in legality and are becoming more vulnerable as a result of new legality measures.
- A Maryudi, H Kurniawan, B.D Siswoko, W Andayani, B Murdawa. 2018. What for forest audits say? The Indonesia mandatory forest certification. International Forestry Review 19(2): 170-179. https://doi.org/10.1505/146554817821255150 .
Since its emergence largely as a nonstate, market-driven governance system, certification has grown into a complex field in which states also use it as a regulatory instrument. Our research aimed to analyse the impacts of certification initiatives implemented under government control as a mandatory requirement, which remains understudied to date. The Indonesian mandatory forest certification, Pengelolaan Hutan Produksi Lestari (PHPL), was used as a case study. We employed an adapted corrective action requests (CAR) approach based on audit reports. Seventyeight concessions were audited until December 2015; most of them were eventually granted a PHPL certificate. They scored better on the production aspects than on the main preconditions, social and ecological aspects. Further analysis of the changes in the grades over time showed that the grades across indicators varied, either improving or worsening. Social and ecology-related forest practices appear to be the most challenging aspects in Indonesia, as we found that the grades declined over time despite the fact that the concessions were able to maintain their certification.
- Ahmad Maryudi. 2018. Creating new forest governance structure for the 12.7 million-promise. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan 11(1): 1-3.
- A Widicahyono, SA Awang, A Maryudi, MA Setiawan, AU Rusdimi, D Handoko, RA Muhammad. 2018. Achieving sustainable ese of environment: a framework for payment for protected forest ecosystem service. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment Science 148(1) 012019. doi :10.1088/1755-1315/148/1/012019 .
6 million hectares. There is conflict that the protected forest ecosystem service is still often perceived as public goods. Many of them went unrecognized in planning process and continue to be undervalued. The challenge lies in maintaining socioeconomic development and ecosystem services sustainability without overlooking the people’s opportunities and improving their livelihoods over the long term. An integrated approach is required to understand the comprehensive concept of protected forest ecosystem service. This research aims to formulate a scheme of payment for ecosystem service (PES) in a protected forest. It is a first step towards the attempt for the value of ecosystem services to be reflected in decisionmaking. Literatures, previous researches and secondary data are reviewed thoroughly to analyze the interrelated components by looking at the environment as a whole and recognize their linkages that have consequences to one another both positive and negative. The framework of implementation of PES schemes outlines the complexity of human-environment interconnecting relationships. It evaluates the contributing actors of different interest i.e. long term use and short term use. The concept of PES accommodates the fulfillment of both conservation and exploitation with an incentive scheme to the contributing parties who are willing to implement conservation and issuance of compensation expense for any exploitation means. The most crucial part in this concept is to have a good and effective communication between every policy makers concerning the forest ecosystem and local communities.